Part 3

RESEARCH ///

12/02/17

Evaluation of my chosen theme 'IN REMEMBRANCE' with regards to the research which I plan to do:

CULTURAL CONTEXT

I will look into funeral services of service men, and also the customs of families who have lost relatives to wars, or they have gone missing. I will look into the protocol of telling the family, the support that would be offered afterwards, and the customs which will follow. I want to research how memorials are honoured, but also how individual soldiers who have done incredible things will also be honoured for their service to their countries. Also why soldiers feel that it is so important to join the army and make the ultimate sacrifice.

PATHWAY CONTEXT

In relation to jewellery, I think that this theme draws interesting parallels with jewellery and accessories. For soldiers, there are so many badges and medals which one can wear, which will honour the individual and give them certain acclaim. selections of colours can show the ranking and regiment of different soldiers. Also I think what is interesting is the way in which we all wear poppies in the months of November to remember the fallen and those who fought and died for their country. I want to research the sentimentality of this, and how this can relate to society, as well as the history behind wearing a poppy on ones chest to reconise someones death, passing or sacrifice.

PERSONAL CONTEXT 

I feel that I have a personal connection to the subject because in close and immediate family, I have friends and relatives who have fought for their countries, and also are prepared to do so again. I have also experienced the pain of someone who was severely injured in a war and how their life has changed. As a result, I therefore feel that it is immensely important that we remember the people who have given their lives to help the world to be the way it is today. However, having said this, I feel my generation has lost understanding of the suffering and sacrifice of generations before us, and therefor I would like to research how to bring this back potentially through my piece of work and research

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Bringing home fallen troops (5)

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The first Armistice Day (7)

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July 1945 (8)

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Celebration at the end of the War (12)

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ARMISTICE AS TIME WENT ON

Armistice Day became associated with drinking, dancing and celebrating. Some argued that young people had been denied jollity for four long years. Yet for others, it was too solemn an event for festivities, and in 1925 commemorative balls were cancelled. Ceremonies became increasingly sombre by the late 1920s, and in 1934 the Peace Pledge Union began to sell white poppies – overtly pacifist symbols – each November. 

Local war memorials were erected throughout the 1920s. At annual ceremonies the names of the dead were read out loud, and so the silence was accompanied by a vocal acknowledgement. This is the sort of ceremony I myself have attended year on year, however I feel that the tradition lacks the emotionally personal connections with the younger generation, however the somber feeling is ever present among those at the ceremony.

Remembrance Day events were scaled down during the Second World War. The 1918 victory seemed deminished as people focused on the war that they were currently in. After 1945 both conflicts were remembered on the Sunday closest to 11 November. There was a political decision to restore the two-minute silence in 1996: once again it was to become an integral part of national life. However, In 2008 there were three British First World War veterans at the Cenotaph on Remembrance Day, and the numbers have obviously decreased since then to very small numbers of  original veterans attending the events on the 11th every year. 

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Wearing the Remembrance Poppy (18)

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14/02/17

Each year at the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month, we observe a Two Minute Silence. Armistice Day on 11 November marks the end of the First World War and is a day to remember and honour those who have paid the price for our freedom. Great Britain still believes strongly in remembering those who fought not only in World Wars, but the more than 12,000 British Servicemen and women killed or injured since 1945. The Royal British Legion supports silences observed during both Remembrance Sunday services and on 11 November, Armistice Day, itself. 

There is A specific protocal for Remembrance, which is described as reading the Exhoration and then participating in a two minute silence in order to remember and honour those who have fallen. The Exhoration is as follows: 

"They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old, 
Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn. 
At the going down of the sun, and in the morning 
We will remember them."

Response: "We will remember them."

"At the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month, there may be a brief space of two minutes, a complete suspension of all our normal activities"- King George V, 1919

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Life Pausing for the 2 Minutes Silence (24)

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White to signify Peace (30)

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The Queen laying a Wreath of poppies (31)

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MODERN REMEMBRANCE SERVICES 

There was one of the most notable remembrance services in July- November 2014, where artists  Paul Cummins and Tom Piper, created 888,246 ceramic poppies, which progressively filled the Tower’s famous moat.  The major art installation Blood Swept Lands and Seas of Red at the Tower of London, marked one hundred years since the first full day of Britain's involvement in the First World War. The poppies encircled the iconic landmark, creating not only a spectacular display visible from all around the Tower but also a location for personal reflection. The scale of the installation was intended to reflect the magnitude of such an important centenary and create a powerful visual commemoration. All of the poppies that made up the installation were sold, raising millions of pounds which were shared equally amongst six service charities.

Each day in the moat at sunset, names of 180 Commonwealth troops killed during the war were read out as part of a Roll of Honour, followed by the Last Post. Members of the public nominated names for the Roll of Honour using a weekly ‘first come, first served’ nomination system to be read the following week in this nightly ceremony. 

I think that this is particularly interesting, as the Roll of Honour recognises the names troops who died or where killed in the battles and conflicts since WW1, but it makes me wonder about those who where missing, lost and never named, and also people who where not honoured for the things that they did or what they sacrificed

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British Military Funeral (40)

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15/02/17

WAR MEMORIALS

In the aftermath of the First World War, the people of Britain needed a focus for their grief, loss and pride. War memorials were erected across the UK in the greatest wave of remembrance this nation has ever seen. They form an important part of our rich cultural heritage and connect us with the global conflict that shaped the world we live in today. They provide insight into the changing face of commemoration as well as artistic, social, local, military and international history.

Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) memorials exist in order to officially record servicemen and women who died during the designated war years in service, or of causes attributable to service, and have no known grave or were buried or lost at sea. Other war memorials can be any tangible object which has been erected or dedicated to commemorate war, conflict, victory or peace; or casualties who served in, were affected by or killed as a result of war, conflict or peacekeeping; or those who died as a result of accident or disease whilst engaged in military service

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VICTORIA CROSS 

The Victoria Cross is the highest award for gallantry that a British and Commonwealth serviceman can achieve. The Victoria Cross is forever linked with acts of extreme bravery and the original document associated with the medal stated that it could only be awarded for “gallantry of the highest order"

William Howard Russell of “The Times" reported on the bravery of the common soldier and pushed for a bravery award that could be given to the common soldier in recognition of his bravery. At this time, only senior officers were awarded medals for bravery as it was deemed that it was their leadership that drove men on to victory. The House of Commons took up Russell’s idea. MP’s from the Commons decided, on December 19th, 1854, that the Queen, Victoria, should create a medal: “an order of merit for distinguished and prominent personal gallantry to which every grade and individual from the highest to the lowest may be admissible."

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The Victoria Cross (51)

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17/02/17

UNKNOWN WARRIOR

What I have been previously interested in my research is that Unknown Warrior in Westminster Abbey, because I have bene fascinated in the idea of remembering those who have not been acknowledged, those who have been forgotten, and people who hadn't been recognised for what they had done. In Westminster Abbey, there is a memorial to an Unknown Warrior, which was something which I wanted to look into further and research in more depth. 

The idea of such a burial seems first to have come to a chaplain at the Front, the Reverend David Railton (1884-1955), when he noticed in 1916 in a back garden at Armentières, a grave with a rough cross on which were pencilled the words "An Unknown British Soldier". The body was chosen from unknown British servicemen exhumed from four battle areas, the Aisne, the Somme, Arras and Ypres.

The annual Field of Remembrance outside the Abbey was started in 1928 by Major George Howson M.C., founder of the British Legion Poppy Factory. He and a few disabled ex-servicemen stood together around a battlefield cross with trays of paper poppies to sell to passers by who could then plant one beside the cross to remember the fallen. The Legion organizes the much expanded plot each year and all proceeds go to their poppy appeal for veterans. In recent years the late Queen Mother and the Duke of Edinburgh have most often attended the opening ceremony. Prince Harry attended in 2014 and subsequent years. The familiar words spoken at the dedication of the Field are from Laurence Binyon's poem "For the Fallen" - "They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old: Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn. At the going down of the sun, and in the morning, we will remember them."

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Illustration of the Grave (58)

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Child Bomb Victim, 1944 Ethel Gabain

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In MillBank Hospital, 1940, Francis McDonald

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Weapons and Gadgets used by MI5 Agents

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Secret Operations Executive

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GLORIFICATION

The final exhibition which I went to was an exhibit which explained and glorified the soldiers alongside the civilians who had been awarded the Victoria cross and George Cross. I thought that this was also very relevant to my theme, because by contrast to the Secret military, I realised that this showed how individuals could be recognised and honoured. I thought that this was interesting because I was able to see the glorification of people who where not only in the military but ordinary people also. It did help me feel more of a connection to them through gratitude, appreciation and also the awe I felt when I read what they had done. I think that this showed me that my generation can feel all these things, however the education about them is key to doing this

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Collage of Images which created the piece (61)

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Private James Earnest (62)

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My Night In Body Armour (65)

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Remembrance Art Video, Canary Wharf

David Cameron on Remembrance

19/02/17

I found that I was interested in researching the soldiers and servicemen who were not honoured, which lead me on to Dishonour. Having read up on this, I realised that the largest dishonour that could be places upon a soldier, or something which a soldier would wish never to have next to his name was desertion. I thought about this, and understood that deserting your fellow soldiers or refusing to fight would in fact be very shaming, however, when I read about the theme, I realised there was so much more to it that what I had initially presumed. 

SHAMING 

Nearly 150,000 Allied soldiers deserted but the 25-year-old ex-convict from Detroit, Michigan, Private Eddie Slovik was the only one to face the firing squad. In 1944, as the war still hung in the balance and his colleagues in the 28th Infantry Division were suffering heavy casualties, he refused to fight.

His execution, ratified by General Dwight D Eisenhower, was meant to send a strong message to any other soldiers considering desertion. The mental collapse and desertion of tens of thousands of men - the equivalent of 10 army divisions - reached near epidemic proportions in Europe in the Second World War. 

In contrast, controversy over the executions of deserters in the First World War raged for many decades until pardons were finally granted to 306 men just a few years ago.Charles Glass reveals, the majority of deserters were frontline infantry troops who buckled under the pressure of constant bombardment, fear of landmines, extreme weather, sleep deprivation, malnutrition and the relentless death of comrades. Glass says: "Few deserters were cowards. Many broke under the strain of constant battle, having faced the enemy without let-up for many months. Men were pushed beyond their limit. Some soldiers deserted only when all the other members of their unit had been killed and their own deaths appeared inevitable."

Unlike the First World War, there was no organised policy of rotating men out of the front line to give them respite. "Some chose disgrace over the grave," adds Glass. "For others there was no choice. Their bodies simply led them from danger and they remembered walking away, as if in a dream."

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The Firing Squad (71)

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SHELL SHOCK

Not one of the executed soldiers would be shot today - the military death penalty was outlawed in 1930

'Letters home from the front line show soldiers in stages of mental collapse,' Petra Boynton explains- 'Men were obviously breaking down as they wrote about the horrors they'd seen. Those who did survive were changed forever.'

'Even the ancient Greeks knew about what they called 'war exhaustion', whether it was physical or mental,' says Dr Boynton from the Royal Free and University Medical School

'This condition would make soldiers behave erratically or hysterically, or go to the other extreme and become catatonic. Some who had run away claimed they could no longer stand the noise, and we know that if the eardrums take a constant pounding, the discomfort is too painful to bear. I'm sure thousands of men were terrified, but this is different. This is about inability to cope.Many of these men later proved they were brave by refusing to be blindfolded for their executions. They stared down the barrels of the guns

Shell shock - now called post-traumatic stress disorder - was first recognised in print by Dr Charles Myers of the British Psychological Society in 1915. By the end of the war the army had dealt with more than 80,000 cases

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Blindfold & Alone, Cathryn Corns (77)

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OPPOSING PARDONING 

Veteran Albert 'Smiler' Marshall recalls only too well the terror of battle. The former Essex Yeomanry soldier, who was 105 in 2002, remembers one incident in 1917 as being even more horrifying than the Somme. He does however believe that pardoning deserters would be wrong- 'I didn't know anyone who was executed or who had anything to do with a firing squad but we all knew about the penalty. But it didn't occur to you not to fight. You didn't think about it, you just did it. And you just took what came your way.'

Former Intelligence Corps officer Colonel John Hughes-Wilson, is adamant history should not be rewritten. 'The real issue is not about the convictions but about the severity of the sentences,' he says.'Some men, and there are tragic cases, were undoubtedly suffering from what we would now recognise as combat stress. But our great-grandfathers didn't understand that any more than they knew about blood transfusions or penicillin. 'If these men were alive today, we would not kill them. But we must be very wary about applying our modern sentiments and values to the 1914-18 war."

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Shot at Dawn Memorial Posts Declaring Names of Soldiers (80)

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WAR NEUROSIS 

Millions of men who suffered psychological trauma as a result of their war experiences. Symptoms ranged from uncontrollable diarrhoea to unrelenting anxiety. Soldiers who had bayoneted men in the face developed hysterical tics of their own facial muscles. Stomach cramps seized men who knifed their foes in the abdomen. Snipers lost their sight. Terrifying nightmares of being unable to withdraw bayonets from the enemies' bodies persisted long after the slaughter.

It was clear to everyone that large numbers of combatants could not cope with the strain of warfare. By the end of World War One, the army had dealt with 80,000 cases of 'shell shock'. As early as 1917, it was recognised that war neuroses accounted for one-seventh of all personnel discharged for disabilities from the British Army. Once wounds were excluded, emotional disorders were responsible for one-third of all discharges. Even more worrying was the fact that a higher proportion of officers were suffering in this way. According to one survey published in 1917, while the ratio of officers to men at the front was 1:30, among patients in hospitals specialising in war neuroses, the ratio of officers to men was 1:6. What medical officers quickly realised was that everyone had a 'breaking point': weak or strong, courageous or cowardly - war frightened everyone witless.

Understanding what caused some panic-stricken men to suffer extremes of trauma. In the early years of World War One, shell shock was believed to be the result of a physical injury to the nerves. In other words, shell shock was the result of being buried alive or exposed to heavy bombardment. The term itself had been coined, in 1917, by a medical officer called Charles Myers. But Myers rapidly became unhappy with the term, recognising that many men suffered the symptoms of shell shock without having even been in the front lines. As a consequence, medical officers increasingly began emphasising psychological factors as providing sufficient cause for breakdown

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22/02/17

THE WHITE FEATHER MOVEMENT 

The White Feather Movement was a propaganda campaign in England during WWI to encourage men to enlist in the army. White feathers (a symbol of cowardice and failure to fulfill their male duties) were distributed by women of the Order of the White Feather to any man they saw who seemed capable of joining the army that was out of uniform. The idea was that men would be shamed by realizing women viewed them in this way, and other men would be so afraid of receiving a feather that there would be a great movement of men all over the country being persuaded and intimidated into joining the army

The White Feather was a very effective idea, as it targeted the exact features of a man that they viewed highly. The culture in Britain during WWI put a lot of emphasis on masculinity, and to have women call you ‘coward’ and ‘a disgrace’ was very insulting. Especially with the younger men, knowing that women viewed them in such a way was especially shameful. They were basically displaying their disappointment, and that they would not like to be associated with them. White feathers targeted specifically public shame and the disapproval by any potential wives or lovers to scare men into not receiving one

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I think that this shows the pressure on men to go to war and to fight. I therefore think that it will reflect the shame and disgrace of communities and families if they where related to a deserter because of the sheer pride that the men had to have and the masculinity and bravery that the soldiers where meant to consistently show. 

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Pressure on men to enlist (86)

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The soldiers were given access to legal representation, but not the right of appeal, as the Field Marshal's decision was 'absolute'.
Because 'Shell- Shock was not recognized & properly understood back then, most of them were not given proper medical examinations, and so their conditions were 'over-looked'

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Billy Nelson (88)

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Edwin Dyett (89)

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PRIVATE ABRAHAM BEVISTEIN

Pte Abraham Bevistein was one of 250,000 British soldiers who gave a false age to join up and enlisted into the 11Bn the Middlesex Regiment aged 16. 
But after only a month in the front line the teenager suffered shell shock after a grenade exploded next to him and he went to the rear to seek help. 
After being told by a medical officer that he was fit to return to fighting, Pte Bevistein, a Jew from the East End of London, wandered off and was arrested for desertion.
In a letter to his mother, he wrote: "We were in the trenches and I was ill so I went out and they took me to prison and I am in a bit of trouble now and won't get any money for a long time."The family had not known that the teenager had joined up until he came home in uniform. A few months later they received a telegram telling them that Pte Bevistein had been sentenced to death for desertion and shot on March 20, 1916.

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26/02/17 Henry Moore: Inspiration & Process

Today I wanted to do some more broad researching, and decided to go to the Burberry Makers House for the Henry Moore Exhibition. Although not directly related to the project I felt the exhibition would broaden my inspiration and produce some interesting results. The exhibition was A celebration of the new collection and the iconic artist who inspired it. Henry Moore: Inspiration & Process includes some of Moore's most famous sculptures alongside his working models and maquette. 

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Tube Shelter Perspective (1941), HENRY MOORE

At the outset of WWII, Moore was approached to be an official War Artist. However, one evening during the war, when he and his wife were returning from dinner with friends, they were forced to take shelter on the platform of Belsize Park tube station during a heavy air raid, and he was astonished at what he witnessed. "It was like a huge city in the bowels of the earth. When I first saw it...I saw hundreds of Henry Moore figures stretched along the platform." He drew the figures from memory on return to his studio, and went on to complete 3 sketchbooks full of drawings. The War Artists Committee later purchased a number of larger drawings from Moore, including Tube Shelter Perspective, and distributed them to galleries around England to help boost morale.

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Anselm Kiefer, Black Flakes (95)

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Anselm Kiefer, LiLith am Roten Meer (96)

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Anselm Kiefer, Morgenthau Plan (97)

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More subtle and slightly provocative take on a blindfold (103)

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Notes on Shell Shock WW1 Documentary, 1

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01/03/17 (106)

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03/03/17

PAUL NASH- Tate Exhibition

Born in London, Nash grew up in Buckinghamshire where he developed a love of the landscape. He entered the Slade School of Art but was poor at figure drawing and concentrated on landscape painting. Nash found much inspiration in landscapes with elements of ancient history, such as burial mounds, Iron Age hill forts such as Wittenham Clumps and the standing stones at Avebury in Wiltshire. . The artworks he produced during World War I are among the most iconic images of the conflict. After the war Nash continued to focus on landscape painting, originally in a formalized, decorative style but, throughout the 1930s, in an increasingly abstract and surreal manner.

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The Mule Track (113)

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04/03/17

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Bravery Symbol (116)

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Chinese Symbolism for Bravery, Courageous, Audacity (118)

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Lion Represents Bravery, Courage and Strength (120)

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06/03/17 Marlene Dumas- Fashion Illustration Workshop (123)

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I was initially drawn to this image due to the positioning on the body, however i think i like it because of its similarities to my own work and the piece that I created out of copper wires. i think that this piece has made me think more about ways of linking the geometry shapes 

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I really like the balance on this piece and the fact that it rests on the shoulders. the enlarged scale is also appealing because it makes the piece seem more prominent and more of a feature. This piece has made me consider more about how to rest my piece on the shoulder instead of wrapping the whole way around the body.

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Iris Van Herpen (131)

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from this research, i realise that i am definitely interested in focussing my piece around the neck area, while resting it structurally on the shoulder as i feel that there is a beauty in the illusion of not having a fasten around the neck but instead weighting the design effectively so that it could just rest on the body. i also realise i like the mixture of shapes which are hollow and filled in too as i think the contrast is more interesting to look at.

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14/03/17- Alexander McQueen Savage Beauty Book- Armouring the Body

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Shaun Lean, The Horn of Plenty AW 2009

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15/03/17 -A British field party (136)

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British Body Armour 1917 (137)

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15/03/17

I looked into armour, because I wanted to correlate this with my design for the soldiers that I was designing for. I realise that the shapes of the first world war armour where predominantly rectangles and therefore I want to focus on this for my own piece, however in armour pre dating this, layering was a massive part of the arrangement of metal, for flexibility and movement. When looking at current armouring of troops, I can also recognise that the weight of it is heavily placed around the shoulders and chest as if for protection, and I think that this correlates well to my own project.

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WOUNDED Exhibition at the Science Museum

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Trinkets Found on the Wounded Soldiers

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The Different Types of Gas used in WW1

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Glorification of the Wounded

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Modern Bullet Vest (141)

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British Uniform in WW1 (143)

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Armour WW1 (146)

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30/03/17 Shoulder Armour Inspiration

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Body Armour

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30/03/17

I wanted to look into the shapes of Shoulder Protection and armour in fashion, as well as the possible armour inspiration from the actual armour used in the war. I think that this image is interesting as it takes the classic shapes used usually in classic armour and has used them as an accessory for the shoulder really effectively. Its made me think about the shapes I should use for my shoulder design. 

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Digitally printing onto copper (152)

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Usin Copper as a Dry Point Printer

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02/03/17

ETCHING PCD CIRCUIT BOARDS

I have been researching a technique which is used to etch circuit boards, and leaves an effect very similar to the look of the etchings that I have been doing on the copper foil. I wanted to look into the technique because I think that this could be effective for me drawing on the lion heads and etching into the actual copper.

Draw the design with the resist, having done this I would then need to place it in the chemical Ferric Acid, which is used as the etching component. It is effective because it reacts with the copper. I would need to put resist around any surface that is visible, including the back and sides, or the resist will eat away at it. In theory, after a period of time, the design will be etched into the copper as a relief drawing.

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Copper etching for PCD (155)

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Printed Circuit Board- PCD (156)

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VIDEOS OF ETCHING WITH FERRIC CHLORIDE

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CN_X8RAy2hg

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pYv3rqUzbLU

From these videos, I realise that it is perfectly possible to use a Sharpie as the resist when drawing onto the copper at home. 

Danger to the environment

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risk assessment for Ferric Chloride

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17/04/17 Sheltered Identity (157)

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Alexander McQueen, Savage Beauty

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Roberto De La Nuvo

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Baptiste Giabiconi Numero Homme

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17/04/17

I researched into the photography of armour and such like in editorial shoots as well as on the run way, because I wanted to look at the way that the accessories where styled as inspiration for my own photography shoot next week. I noticed that there was a much more effective sinister feel to the shoot if there was a dark background, as most of the ones with lighter backgrounds seemed more playful. Lots where also put in black and white which I think is very effective however wouldn't work for my own piece because this would remove the aspect of colour from my piece which is essential for translating the context. having looked at this imagery I think that I will style my piece in black background, however, I am willing to take advice, for my piece is quite dark anyway, and therefore if this will compromise the detail that can be seen on it, I will use the white background instead. 

Nikita Golubev "dirty art"

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HISTORICAL CONTEXT 

I think that this theme will be extremely interesting to research in a historical context, because the world wars in particular where so influential to life today, and therefore I would like to research the ways in which people have commemorated them. In the theme of remembering, I want to think about who initiated “Rememberance Day’ and how this differs in different countries. I also want to think more about the way in which people are remembered. I will look into memorials and positve recollections of people, as well as more negative moments in history which are remembered, but perhaps is something which people would rather forget. I also want to look at some war time artists and artists who illustrated battles in the early 19th century, as I think that this will be useful in the visual interpretation of this research. I will also look at how many soldiers in famous battles where killed or injured. 

END USER CONTEXT 

In this project, I want to help people to remember. I want them to really understand and remmerber people who gave up their lives to help make the world a better place. I want the piece that I create to be reminiscent of individuals who are forgotten, or perhaps just more personal than the mere numbers of victims which are generically heard. I think that we have begun to loose the sense of gratitude to victims of wars because of the time and distance from it. I therefore want this to be prominent in my piece. I would like it to be personal and harrowing, but also to honour individuals who have changed our lives.

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Remembrance Symbol (1)

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Soldiers showing respect (4)

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Cenotaph (6)

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Cenotaph at a more recent ceremony (9)

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The Last Post (11)

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From 1921 artificial poppies were sold to support the Earl Haig fund for ex-servicemen. Former soldiers made the poppies – and so ensured their own employment – and the profits supported ex-servicemen in need. 

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HISTORY OF WEARING A POPPIE

In the spring of 1915, shortly after losing a friend in Ypres, a Canadian doctor, Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae was inspired by the sight of poppies growing in battle-scarred fields to write a now famous poem called 'In Flanders Fields'. After the First World War, the poppy was adopted as a symbol of Remembrance.

In the first world war, poppies would be the first signs of life on battle fields (disturbed ground) on the western front. When burring soldiers who had died in the battle firsts, poppies would emerge out of the newly dug graves. The Canadian John McCrae then wrote one of the most famous poems of the first world war. He didn't like the poem at first and crumpled the paper and threw it away. His fellow soldiers admired it however, and it was later published in Punch Magazine on Dec 8th 1915. This inspired the idea of wearing silk poppies as a sign of remembrance by two women. Moina Michael, was inspired to make and sell red silk poppies which were brought to England by a French woman, Anna Guérin.

The following year, Major George Howson set up the Poppy Factory to employ disabled ex-Servicemen. Today, the factory and the Legion's warehouse in Aylesford produces millions of poppies each year

The demand for poppies in England was so high that few were reaching Scotland. Earl Haig's wife established the 'Lady Haig Poppy Factory' in Edinburgh in 1926 to produce poppies exclusively for Scotland. Over 5 million Scottish poppies (which have four petals and no leaf unlike poppies in the rest of the UK) are still made by hand by disabled ex-Servicemen at Lady Haig's Poppy Factory each year and distributed by our sister charity Poppyscotland.

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Poppy Appeal (19)

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THE SILENCE

On the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month in 1918 the guns of Europe fell silent. After four years of the most bitter and devastating fighting, The War was finally over. The Armistice was signed at 5am in a railway carriage in the Forest of Compiegne, France on November 11, 1918. Six hours later, at 11am, the war ended.

In a letter published in the London Evening News on 8 May 1919, an Australian journalist, Edward George Honey, proposed a respectful silence to remember those who had given their lives in the First World War. This was brought to the attention of King George V and on 7 November 1919, he issued a proclamation calling for a two minute silence, where "all locomotion should cease, so that, in perfect stillness, the thoughts of everyone may be concentrated on reverent remembrance of the glorious dead." 

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It is primarily a form of respect to observe the two minutes and try remember the fallen, however the issue I have with this is that how can my generation remember something that they where not part of? It is increasingly difficult to remember and think about something which you weren't alive for, therefore all we can do is just imagine the pain and suffering and respect the enormity of the list of the dead who died for us.  

The silence is meant as a tribute to those who lost their lives fighting for their country.The first Remembrance Day was conducted in 1919 throughout Britain and the Commonwealth. Originally called Armistice Day, it commemorated the end of hostilities the previous year. It came to symbolise the end of the war and provide an opportunity to remember those who had died. After the end of the Second World War in 1945 Armistice Day became Remembrance Day to include all those who had fallen in the two World Wars and other conflicts.

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Observing the Silence in the street (27)

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Peace (28)

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Remembrance / Peace (29)

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Remembrance Service at the Cenotaph (32)

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Remembrance 2014 (35)

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Roll of Honour each evening (37)

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Paul Cummins and Tom Piper (38)

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Army Funeral Services (42)

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SERVICE MEN FUNERAL PROTOCOL 

All members of the Legion and ex-Service personnel can have the Standard paraded at their funeral. The Standard should precede the coffin in the procession, and if space permits, stand abreast of it during the service. The same procedure should be followed at the place of burial. The Standard should dip as an act of homage as the coffin is lowered into the grave. When the Standard is carried at a cremation, the same procedure applies if the building permits space, and should be adopted as at a burial. Alternatively, the Standard Bearer should stand six paces inside the entrance to the crematorium, facing the coffin. The Standard should dip as an act of homage as the curtains are closed removing the coffin from view. In some parts of the country there is a practice to have the Last Post, Exhortation and Reveille with the Legion Standards present. 

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Oh what a Lovely War Production (47)

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Soldiers Dressed as Clowns (48)

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Victoria Cross Recipient Johnson Beharry (52)

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George Cross (53)

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Unknown Warrior Inscription- 

BENEATH THIS STONE RESTS THE BODY
OF A BRITISH WARRIOR
UNKNOWN BY NAME OR RANK
BROUGHT FROM FRANCE TO LIE AMONG
THE MOST ILLUSTRIOUS OF THE LAND
AND BURIED HERE ON ARMISTICE DAY
11 NOV: 1920, IN THE PRESENCE OF
HIS MAJESTY KING GEORGE V
HIS MINISTERS OF STATE
THE CHIEFS OF HIS FORCES
AND A VAST CONCOURSE OF THE NATION
THUS ARE COMMEMORATED THE MANY
MULTITUDES WHO DURING THE GREAT
WAR OF 1914-1918 GAVE THE MOST THAT
MAN CAN GIVE LIFE ITSELF
FOR GOD
FOR KING AND COUNTRY
FOR LOVED ONES HOME AND EMPIRE
FOR THE SACRED CAUSE OF JUSTICE AND
THE FREEDOM OF THE WORLD
THEY BURIED HIM AMONG THE KINGS BECAUSE HE
HAD DONE GOOD TOWARD GOD AND TOWARD
HIS HOUSE

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Remembrance of the Unknown Warriors lost in War (56)

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WHAT THE GRAVE REPRESENTS

After the First World War (1914-18), many countries wanted to express their gratitude to the ordinary men who fought so gallantly in such horrifying conditions. A British chaplain who had served in Flanders suggested that an unknown soldier be chosen from the many who lay in unmarked graves and buried in Westminster Abbey, as a representative of the multitude who had lost their lives. It was further suggested that the ceremonial burial should take place on the same day as the Cenotaph at Whitehall was formally consecrated – Armistice Day, 11 November, 1920.

Strict precautions were taken to ensure that the chosen soldier should remain anonymous. A number of bodies were brought from different areas, and from these one was secretly chosen. A coffin bearing the body was brought to Boulogne where it was put on board ship for England.After the ceremony at the Cenotaph, the coffin was borne in procession to the Abbey. King George V headed those who solemnly walked behind it. It was buried in soil brought from France amidst the famous men and women buried in the Abbey.

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Family In War Time

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SECRET WAR

What I found most fascinating was the exhibit on the Secret War, which explained the events and operations which where done completely classified during the World Wars and other conflict. I found that this was particularly relevant to my theme, due to the fact that these military operations involved many people, who couldn't be recognised for their part in the war, in turning points, or even in any battle, because only recently has some of this information been made available to the public. The exhibition was concerned with under cover agents, espionage and the closely guarded secret missions which changed the course of battle. I understood that MI5 is an association also known as the Secret Service which was established in 1909, however its role was only defined publicly 80 years later. Its function was the protection of national security against espionage and sabotage from within the British boarders. It was born when the London Metropolitan Police formed a special branch of specialist agents to combat Irish nationalist Terrorism. In October 1909 the service was formed and was a rapid success, especially in the war, making it very difficult for german spies to function in Britain.

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Information on Personal

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Decoding Communication Machines

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Medals awarded to SOE Soldiers

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Medals of Honour

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The Face Of WW1 (60)

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JAQUELINE HURLEY

Jacqueline paints in both expressionism and impressionism styles as this is how the paint flows from her heart onto the canvas: “My lips don't do the talking, the canvas does. I believe Visual Art is a powerful means of communication, it is a universal language”Her paintings feature silhouettes which are intended to allow her audience to connect with the works in a more personal and emotional way. Her beautiful images have been well received by an international audience, touching the hearts of many and keeping the importance of remembrance in the forefront of our mindsJacqueline wishes to reach out to her heroes to let them know she is thinking of them and remembering the fallen

Although Jacqueline’s imagery depicts scenes of war, she brings an element and sense of peace to her work, this being what we all hope for and what lives have been sacrificed for.

"I can never thank you enough, you give your todays for our tomorrows."

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British Soldiers Waiting to be Evacuated (66)

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Private Eddie Slovik (67)

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Desertion (68)

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Firing Squad (70)

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THE CONSEQUENCES 

To their far-off generals, the soldiers' executions served a dual purpose - to punish the deserters and to dispel similar ideas in their comrades. Courts martial were anxious to make an example and those on trial could expect little support from medical officers. One such doctor later recalled, 'I went to the trial determined to give him no help, for I detest his type - I really hoped he would be shot.'

Those condemned to death usually had their sentences confirmed by Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig on the evening following their court-martial. A chaplain was dispatched to spend the night in the cell with the condemned man and execution took place the following dawn, with some men facing their last moments drugged with morphine or alcohol

When the time came, the offender was tied to a stake, a medical officer placed a piece of white cloth over the man's heart and a priest prayed for him. Then the firing line - usually made up of six soldiers - was given orders to shoot. One round was routinely blank and no soldier could be sure he had fired a fatal shot.Immediately after the shooting, the medical officer would examine the man. If he was still alive, the officer in charge would finish him off with a revolver.

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Shell Shock (73)

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2 CASE STUDIES

PRIVATE THOMAS HIGHGATE

Private Thomas Highgate was the first to suffer such military justice. Unable to bear the carnage of 7,800 British troops at the Battle of Mons, he had fled and hidden in a barn. He was undefended at his trial because all his comrades from the Royal West Kents had been killed, injured or captured. Just 35 days into the war, Private Highgate was executed at the age of 17

HERBERT BURDEN

Another 16-year-old Herbert Burden, who had lied that he was two years older so he could join the Northumberland Fusiliers. Ten months later, he was court-martialled for fleeing after seeing his friends massacred at the battlefield of Bellwarde Ridge. He faced the firing squad still officially too young to be in his regiment.

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Blindfold & Alone, Cathryn Corns (76)

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SHOT AT DAWN CAMPAIGN

Opinion continues to be divided. The Royal British Legion supports calls for a pardon and, for the past two years, has invited the Shot at Dawn campaigners to take part in the march past the Cenotaph in London on Remembrance Sunday. Last year a memorial to the executed soldiers was erected at the National Memorial Arboretum in Lichfield, Staffs.

'We don't want pardons for villains. We want justice for people who were shot for insubordination because they refused to put on a hat, or who fell asleep at their post, or were just so terrified they simply could not cope.'

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The Shot at Dawn sculpture at the National Memorial Arboretum commemorates the 306 men shot for desertion or cowardice in World War One. In 2006 All 306 soldiers of the First World War who were shot at dawn for cowardice or desertion will be granted posthumous pardons, the Ministry of Defence.

Des Browne, the Defence Secretary, has decided to cut short a review that had been prompted by campaigns to exonerate the men, and emergency legislation will be put before the House of Commons soon after it resumes sitting in the autumn. The news was greeted with joy by the family of Pte Harry Farr, who was executed during the Battle of the Somme in 1916 for cowardice in the face of the enemy.

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Private Henry Farr (81)

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PRIVATE HENRY FARR 

At dawn on October 16, 1916, Private Henry Farr of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) is executed for cowardice after he refused to go forward into the front-line trenches on the Western Front during World War IAfter joining the BEF in 1914, Farr was sent to the front in France; the following May, he collapsed, shaking, and was sent to a hospital for treatment. He returned to the battlefield and participated in the Somme Offensive. In mid-September 1916, however, Farr refused to go ahead into the trenches with the rest of his squadron; after being dragged forward, struggling, he broke away and ran back. He was subsequently court-martialed for cowardice and given a death sentence, which was carried out on October 16.

Farr was one of 306 soldiers from Britain and the Commonwealth who were executed for cowardice during the Great War. According to his descendants, who have fought a long battle to clear his name, Farr suffered from severe shell-shock, a condition that was just being recognized at the time, and had been damaged both physically and psychologically by his experience of combat, especially the repeated heavy bombardments to which he and his comrades at the front had been subjected. The symptoms of “shell-shock”—a term first used in 1917 by a medical officer named Charles Myers—included debilitating anxiety, persistent nightmares and physical afflictions ranging from diarrhea to loss of sight. By the end of World War I, the British army had been forced to deal with 80,000 cases of this affliction, including among soldiers who had never experienced a direct bombardment.

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White Feather Propaganda (82)

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Pressure on men to fight (83)

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Between 1914 and 1920, more than 3,000 British soldiers were sentenced to death by courts martial for desertion, cowardice, striking an officer, disobedience, falling asleep on duty or casting away arms. 
That said, only 11 per cent (306) of the sentences were carried out.
Medical evidence apparently showing that many were suffering from shell-shock was submitted to the courts, but not recognized & misinterpreted. Most hearings lasted no more than 20 minutesTranscripts made public 75 years after the events suggest that some of the men were underage. 
Others appeared to have wandered away from the battlefield in states of extreme distress and confusion, yet they were charged with desertion. When the suppressed documents relating to these courts martial were released, they showed that these men were demonstrably shell-shocked.

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Peter Goggins (87)

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PRIVATE BILLY NELSON

Pte Billy Nelson- Only days after being wounded in the murderous fighting at the Battle of Loos, Billy Nelson was facing the firing squad.
The soldier had failed to "go over the top" because he was having his first meal for days, with permission, in another part of the battlefield. 
After a court martial lasting only five minutes, Pte Nelson, who was not represented, was found guilty. 
The 19-year-old soldier told the hearing: "I have had a lot of trouble at home and my nerves are badly upset. My father is a prisoner in Germany and is losing his eyesight there through bad treatment. "My mother died while I was still in England, leaving my sister aged 13 and my brother aged 10. I am the only one left. I had no intention of deserting."
He was shot as an example to others at dawn on Aug 11, 1916.

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Abraham Bevistein (90)

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John Wall's Grave

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“I have been fascinated by the great British sculptor Henry Moore for as long as I can remember – his work has always had a powerful influence on me. Looking at, and thinking about, his work set up a series of conversations as we began working on our latest collection. The result is an incredibly enriching collaboration with his Foundation which has extended well beyond our show, and into an extraordinary exhibition of his work and process at Makers House. Moore’s work on display will be a shining example of the creativity and enormous contribution he made to the development of contemporary art in the UK and way beyond, and I’m excited to be showing our February collection alongside the remarkable work of the artist that inspired it ”

Christopher Bailey, Burberry Chief Creative and Chief Executive Officer

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Tube Shelter Perspective (92)

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Grey Tube Shelter, Henry Moore (93)

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ANSELM KIEFER

Anselm Kiefer (born 8 March 1945) is a German painter and sculptor. His works are characterised by an unflinching willingness to confront his culture's dark past, and unrealised potential, in works that are often done on a large, confrontational scale well suited to the subjects. It is also characteristic of his work to find signatures and/or names of people of historical importance, legendary figures or historical places. 

What I have found influential about his work is the fact that the scale and the colour palette could be incorporated into my own work, due to the fact that I think his confrontation of the mistakes of the past is doe very effectively in his obvious and dark style of work. 

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The darker side of Blindfolds (99)

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Hostages being lead out Captive area (102)

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Firing Squad Blindfold (104)

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Notes on Shell Shock WW1 Documentary, 2

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Private Peaceful, Micheal Morpurgo (107)

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Coward Film, David Roddham(108)

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Totes Meer, Paul Nash (110)

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The Void, Paul Nash (111)

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Having been to the exhibition of Paul Nash's Work and researched him as an artist, what I find most interesting about his work is that he completely changes the effect and atmosphere of the painting through his colour palette and the dark shades to create a solemn mood compared to the happier mood in his pastel colour palettes. I think that in my own work I will look into this at some point, because I do want to explore darker colour schemes.

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05/03/17 Ancient Symbols for Bravery (115)

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Celtic Symbols of Bravery and Strength (119)

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Bear Symbolised Strength and Courage (122)

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Marlene Dumas- Inspiration For My own Illustrations (124)

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10/03/17 Geometric Jewellery (127)

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I like this image because i think that its simplicity is such a strength and shows that repetitively combining geometric shapes can be very effective all on its own. 

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Notes on Armouring the Body

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Shaun Leane, 'Thorn' Arm Piece, AW 1996

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ARMOURING THE BODY - Context

I read up about Alexander McQueen and how he was able to use jewellery to enhance his clothing designs but also make his concept more obvious and prominent. I think that this is what I will take into my own project because I realise that I am able to create a piece which can more explicitly say what my whole concept and message is about, and I think that this is important because I want to put more of my research into my designs

I specifically looked at the pieces where the inspiration or outcome related to armour, because I realised that this was very relevant to my project, and I think that I will further pressure this avenue of research.

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Layering British Nights Armour (139)

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17/03/17 Helmo Photography

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17/03/17

I was interested in the photographer, Helmo's work because of his use of personifying animals and humans symoltaneously in his photography. I think that his work of overlapping the human with the particular animal is extremely interesting because it gives the human a personality and specific characteristics which are inherently related to the animal.  This is exactly what I have been trying to do with my own work when working with the lion to show courage and bravery.

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WOUNDED Exhibition at the Science Museum (19/03/17)

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Quote from a Doctor in WW1

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Pensions for the Wounded

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Padded Cells to contain soldiers with severe PTSD

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PTSD today

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WW1 Soldiers Uniform (142)

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Bullet vest WW1 (145)

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Shape of the Armour of WW1 (149)

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Shoulder Shape Inspiration (150)

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More Common Armour For the British Army (152)

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Repetitive shapes around the neck as Armour

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31/03/17

BARBARA BERNAT

I wanted to look into the techniques of etching especially in relation to the process of etching onto copper. I researched the artist Barbara Bernat, who uses the copper as if like a dry point printer, and inks it up to then press out the image on to paper. I am mainly interested in the look of the etched copper however I found the process fascinating of how she uses the copper in such a diverse way.

Traditional intaglio printing was used to render the animal imagery from copperplate etchings, a style which has been retained in a lot of modern bank notes despite the availability of newer printing techniques. These copperplates were digitally printed from Barbara Bernát’s original graphite illustrations. She then inked and pulled these finished prints from the copperplates herself

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Barbara Bernat

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Examples of intaglio Printing (153)

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Intaglio Printing (154)

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METHOD USING FERRIC CHLORIDE  (46)

1 The back of the plate must be covered with an acid resist prior to etching. If the plate is not going to be heated, as when melting rosin or applying softground, contact paper is a simple solution. Spray paint is commonly used if the plate will be exposed to heat.
2.  Firmly adhere several pieces of masking tape to the back of the plate prior to immersing your plate in the vertical Ferric Chloride tank. The masking tape functions as a handle for lowering the plate into the bath. Burnish the tape well to assure good adhesion to the plate. 
3.  Lower the plate into the etching bath until the top edge is fully immersed. 
4.   Use clothes pins in the bin near the bath to affix the tapes to the side of the bath. 
5.  Periodically check on the plate while etching. 
6.  When removing the plate from the etching bath, remove the clothes pins, lift the plate directly above the bath, lower one corner, and let the ferric chloride drip back into the bath. Do not let solution drip on the counter or on yourself. 
7.  When finished etching the plate, thoroughly rinse both front and back under cool running water. Mop up any ferric chloride (or copper sulphate) spills with sodium carbonate and water.

Examples of Etching with Ferric Chloride (157)

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05/04/17

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z5gyBoK_UVY

This tutorial made it clear to me that I would need to neutralise the solution and the copper once it had been in the Ferric Chloride to inhibit further etching to occur. This can be done with baking soda and water so I will make sure that I have a bath of this solution ready for when the copper is removed.

17/04/17 Alexander McQueen

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Sculptural fashion by Iris van Herpen (160)

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Gareth Pugh, Fall 2011

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Alexander McQueen Campaign SS 2013

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Nikita Golubev

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Nikita Golubev"dirty Art"

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POLITICAL & ETHICAL CONTEXT

This piece will be inherently political due to the fact that it covers the concepts of war, soldiers and national services. However, I will try to research broadly and look into the way in which governments and political bodies honour, or in fact to dishonour their soldiers and the services which they do. As time goes by we are more detached from the wars and the soldiers who where involved in them, and therefore I want to research how the governments try to remember the fallen, as well as current situations today. I also have an interest into private and specialist agents who are unable to be remembered because of classified missions.

ART & DESIGN CONTEXT

In the history of art and design,  war has been used as inspiration for the creation of pieces which could either depict visually battle scenes in war, or the pain and suffering during/ after it. I want to research some artists, designers, and writers of poems and plays which discuss these themes, and in particular, I want to discover their inspirations and the messages which they wanted to convery through their work. Was it in fact a piece of work intended to educate about the war, warn people off conflict, or merely remember the war? I am interested in this because I think that It will help me to clarify for myself what my own message should be and what I want my work to communicate to people

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Red Cross Poppies (2)

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Medals of Honour (3)

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13/02/17

HISTORY OF ARMISTICE DAY

The Armistice of 11 November 1918 effectively ended the Great War. This was effectively the first remembrance day in history of Britian, despite the conflict only officially concluding with the signing of the peace treaties in June 1919. Two features of that first Remembrance Day are central to today’s commemorations: the Cenotaph in Whitehall and the silence. Alongside the official ceremonies, huge crowds gathered to lay wreaths at the newly erected Cenotaph. Many wore black, as they would to a funeral instead of at a time of celebration. Another tradition from this first Armistice day was  on the king’s initiative people were asked to remain silent at 11 o’clock: to cease activity, to stand with bowed heads and to think of the fallen. The silence was announced by maroons or church bells – and it was universally observed

The movement of everyday life ceased completely in what The Times described as “a great awful silence”. I think that this is incredibly interesting because of the fact that in that silence, it would have been harrowing for the individuals to think back on all the lives that where indeed lost in the war. It was also reported that most people went outdoors in a public space to observe the silence, which I think is really interesting because it shows how the country united and came together. 

In November 1920 the ‘Unknown Warrior’ was buried in Westminster Abbey. The tomb contained the body of an unknown ordinary serviceman picked at random. I found this really fascinating because it was an area which I have been interested in from the beginning. I think it shows a gratitude to the ordinary soldiers who fought, but also highlights the devastation that many soldiers went missing and where never identified, which makes me question what happened to their families and the like. The tomb was designed to honour the ordinary serviceman and to provide emotional or spiritual relief for survivors. 

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Scottish Remembrance Poppy (13)

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English Remembrance Poppies (14)

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Peace Poppies (15)

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Soldier in Poppy Field (17)

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Poppies on Disturbed Ground (16)

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Flanders Field Poem, John McCrae (20)

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Observing the Silence (22)

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Politicians at Cenotaph on Remembrance Day (23)

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SIGNIFICANCE OF THE POPPY

When the poppy was first adopted as the symbol of remembrance it was shortly after the end of the first world war, when almost every family in the land still felt the raw grief of the time. The poppy represented mourning and regret, and served as a pledge that war must never happen again. Arguably this original meaning became subverted. By the 1930s, those alarmed at the militarism that had become associated with the Cenotaph rituals started wearing white poppies to reinforce the peace pledge. Over the decades, as the memory of both wars began to fade, the the poppy began to take on a subtle new meaning. To many people it had become a patriotic duty to wear one, a symbol of pride in the sacrifices of the armed services.

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There has been a vast amount of controversy around the wearing of poppies however, as some would argue that the act of wearing a poppy should be a reminder that the horrific event of a world war should never happen again, however, others would say that in this sense it has failed, because since the wearing of the poppy was first established, there has been a second WW as well as countless other conflicts. This has brought rise to people objecting to politicians laying wreaths at the Cenotaph each November, as they are accountable for sending troops into battles. Similarly some opt to wear a white poppy to resemble peace instead of war. 

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Poppy Wreaths at the Cenotaph (33)

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Tower of London 2014 (34)

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Ceramic Poppies (36)

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Blood Swept Lands and Seas of Red (39)

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VETERANS OF WAR 

I was interested to see what kind of support the government now offer for Veterans of war and conflict, as well how funeral services are conducted for those who lost their lives in battle, to show how they are honoured. 

There are a number of compensation schemes administered by Veterans UK on behalf of the Ministry of Defence available to serving and former serving personnel who are injured as a result of their service in the armed forces. The AFCS provides compensation for any injury, illness or death which is caused by service on or after 6 April 2005. In the event of death, benefits may be payable to a spouse, civil partner, surviving adult dependant and eligible children such as an income stream known as a Survivors’ Guaranteed Income Payment (SGIP). 

The Bereavement Grant is a one-off lump sum, tax-free payment. It is intended to supplement the lump sum paid under the Armed Forces Pensions Scheme (AFPS). The amount payable depends upon whether the death was in-service or post-service and any pension scheme payments. 

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The death of current or former service personnel, whether on active service or not, may involve special procedures and under certain circumstances will entitle the deceased to a military funeral. Military Funerals take place to honour members of the armed forces who died on active service, prominent military figures or heads of state, including the recent military funerals for service personnel killed in Iraq and Afghanistan, or historical events such as the military burial of Winston Churchill in 1965. A military funeral typically includes various martial elements such as a flag-draped coffin, the firing of volleys and the playing of The Last Post. 

Anyone who dies in military service is entitled to a funeral at public expense (A Service Funeral) plus an additional funeral grant. Alternatively, where the family prefers to organise a private funeral, the Ministry of Defense will provide a larger grant towards the cost. 

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OH WHAT A LOVELY WAR

The play, Oh What a Lovely War, premiered in the early 1960s, during a period of international tension. The production continued to spark controversies as it was progressively becoming more popular during that time. Oh What a Lovely War had a successful run in Stratford. After just three months at the Theatre Royal the show's popularity ensured a move to Wyndham’s Theatre in the West End. The key influence on Oh What a Lovely War was a BBC radio programme, The Long, Long Trail. Produced by Charles Chilton and broadcast on the Home Service in 1961, it chronicled WW1 through soldiers' songs and recollections. The show actually became so popular that it was transformed into a movie. A film version of the stage show, Oh! What a Lovely War, was released in 1969. Directed by Richard Attenborough

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I looked into the inspiration behind the show which notably changed peoples views of war, discovering that Joan Littlewood was partly inspired by the controversial military history book ‘The Donkeys’ (the title from the phrase ‘lions led by donkeys’, widely used to compare British soldiers to their commanders) by Alan Clark.  The show was supposed to highlight the hypocrisy and idiocy of war, and how humans had become ridiculous in their actions.

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GEORGE CROSS 

 The George Cross is the civilian equivalent of the Victoria Cross. Only military personnel can win the Victoria Cross. However, they can also be awarded the George Cross for courageous acts carried out away from the enemy, such as defusing an unexploded bomb. For civilians, the George Cross is the highest award for bravery that can be earned.

“In order that they should be worthily and promptly recognised, I have decided to create, at once, a new mark of honour for men and women in all walks of civilian life. I propose to give my name to this new distinction, which will consist of the George Cross, which will rank next to the Victoria Cross, and the George Medal for wider distribution." George VI. The George Cross is awarded to civilians for bravery, “for acts of the greatest heroism or of the most conspicuous courage in circumstances of extreme danger." The George Medal is awarded for more general deeds of bravery

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Grave of the Unknown Warrior, Westminster Abbey (54)

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Barak Obama Paying Tribute to the Grave (55)

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The Inscription of the Unknown Warrior (57)

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Imperial War Museum Write Up

A FAMILY IN WAR TIME

Initially, I went to visit the exhibition on “A Family in War Time” as I wanted o see some perspectives on what life was like for an individual who was experiencing the War. I thought that this would be relevant to remembrance because of the fact that to connect individuals with the war, most families will have had relatives who fought in it, and so I wanted to see how this effected them, and what kind of roles the individuals in the family would play. What Struck me most, was that the entirety of the Allpress Family (the family who was having the case study don't on them) was affected by the war. All the men in the family volunteered as part of the Armed Services, and the women took up Jobs, as well as nursed for the armed forces. The husbands of these women didn't return, however their brothers did, and upon reflection, one of the sisters explained: “ we were lucky enough we had all our brother come back” Showing the gratitude that their family could be partly reconciled after the war

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Women and Children in the Tube 1940, Henry Moore

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MI6 is a service which operates outside the country, on an international scale. Again, founded in 1909, its roll was to obtain information relating to action and intention outside Britain and perform tasks outside Britain. Similarly, the Secret Operations Executive was also utterly Fascinating as I learnt about many soldiers, marines, and regular people who had risked their lives on secret missions in order to help the war effort and complete private tasks which would possibly alter the success of the country. These continue today, and I think that this is interesting because some of the events I read about where performed during my own lifetime. I think that it is incredibly interesting that there are so many of these soldiers who where so happy to go their whole lifetime without ever being honoured for the things which they where doing

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SOE Quote

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Modern Conflict SAS

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18/02/17

HELEN MARSHALL, THE FACE OF WW1

I wanted to look into art which was produced at war time, however initially I came across the artist, Helen Marshall, who produced art which was about contemporary, and has a piece which was incredibly relevant to remembrance. A commission by the BBC. ‘The Face of World War One’, contained more than 30,000 photographs captured across the nation during the BBC World War One at Home Live Events. Original photographs from 1914-1918 were included in the mosaic, supplied from the archives of Imperial War Museums and public submissions. This mosaic commemorates how the sacrifices made by those during World War One, shaped the face of today

The mosaic created a huge image of a Soldier, which was then displayed in the streets for the public to observe. It was of Private James Ernest Beaney was born on April 16th, 1893 in Battersea, London. He had a brother and two sisters, and the family lived in Putney. Before joining the army, James worked as a plumber’s mate. He served in The Queen’s Regiment (Royal West Surrey Regiment), arriving in France on May 31st, 1915. James died on August 8th, 1916 at the Somme.

I think that this has shown how putting a personal aspect to the piece can help people relate to it more deeply, because as people walked past this piece, they would personally see and look into the eyes of James Ernest, which makes me think about how I could make my own piece more personable to people who are living today, making them relate to it even more.

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For the Swift and Bold, Hurley (65)

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Peace for Christmas (64)

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JOHNATHAN SINGER SARGENT, 'GASSED'

The scene depicts the aftermath of a mustard gas attack on the Western Front during World War One, as witnessed by the artist. It is the end of the day. Two groups of eleven soldiers approach a dressing station - the station guy ropes can be seen leading off to the right. In this painting Sargent is holding together two ideas, developed as society was trying to make sense of the war and its cost. The painting gives clues about the management of the victims, their lack of protective clothing, the impact and extent of the attack as well as its routine nature - there is a football match, going on regardless, in the background. In sharp contrast to the victims, the players are physically and visually co-ordinated and have full kit. 

Mustard gas was a weapon that was used indiscriminately during World War One, causing widespread injury and burns, as well as affecting the eyes. It offered the chance of making significant military advances, but in practice defences against it were usually prepared, soldiers replaceable, and the land it was used on could be contaminated for lengthy periods, so it was not as effective as at first thought

John Singer Sargent (1856-1925), the leading society artist of his day, was commissioned by the British government to contribute to a Hall of Remembrance for those who died in World War One

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20/02/19

DESERTION 

In WW1 the british soldiers where expected to fight til death by king, country, military commanders and political leaders. THe conflict quickly became incredibly unpleasant and brutal, and not even the servicemen who had been in the forces for many years and subsequent battles where prepared for it. Honour, therefore, proved far to much for hundreds of the soldiers who where terrified and ultimately driven to breaking point, which resulted in them running away. 

Those who did flee faced instant retribution which was in fact death by firing squad. British and Commonwealth military command executed 306 of its own men during the Great War. Those shot brought such shame on their country that nearly a century on, their names still do not appear on official war memorials

Relatives and supporters of the executed men are fighting to win them a posthumous pardon. Their Shot at Dawn campaign claims the soldiers were blameless because it was severe psychological trauma, not cowardice, that rendered them physically unable to cope with the shocking scenes they had witnessed.

The 3 million soldiers of the British Army who fought all had to accept that there was a very slim chance of their own survival. Day after day they would then watch as their friends, comrades and sometimes entire units where destroyed in the scenes of battle. The irony was, that if they ran from German guns, they would be shot by British ones

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Field Marshall Douglas Haig (74)

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Thomas James Highgate- executed for desertion (75)

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PARDONING DESERTERS 

Five successive British governments have rejected appeals to pardon the soldiers and the Ministry of Defence refuses to re-open the court martial files, even on the youngest troops. 

"There are lots of problems with second-guessing the reasoning behind these actions from today's standpoint,' says an MoD spokesman. 'Anyone over the age of 14 was deemed legally responsible for his actions and army regulations provided no immunity from military law for an underage soldier.'A blanket pardon is impossible because all the cases were different. It would be very difficult to review each case separately because in 80 years a lot of the papers have disappeared.'

Cathryn Corns, co-author of Blindfold and Alone, which examines all 306 courts martial, agrees pardons would be entirely inappropriate.'The number of rogues outnumbered those with mitigating circumstances by about six to one,' she said. 'Many were repeat deserters who showed no sign of shell shock. An individual re-assessment of these cases would undoubtedly reconvict the majority, which would be a terrible thing for families to bear - even worse, probably, than clinging to the hope of a pardon for the ancestors they believe to be innocent."

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Shot At Dawn Memorial (78)

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21/02/17

POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER

I wanted to look into whats known as Shell Shock, but more commonly known as PTSD. This relates to the theme because it was argues that many of the soldiers who were shot for desertion had a similar disorder and simply couldn't cope with the stress of battle any more

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxietydisorder caused by very stressful, frightening or distressing eventsSomeone with PTSD often relives the traumatic event through nightmares and flashbacks, and may experience feelings of isolation, irritability and guilt. They may also have problems sleeping, such as insomnia, and find concentrating difficult. These symptoms are often severe and persistent enough to have a significant impact on the person’s day-to-day life.

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During the First World War it was referred to as "shell shock"; as "war neurosis" during WWII; and as "combat stress reaction" during the Vietnam War.  In the 1980s the term Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was introduced - the term we still use today. PTSD is essentially a memory filing error. It can happen when people are exposed to an extraordinary life-threatening situation which is perceived with intense fear, horror and helplessness. At the time someone is being exposed to this intensely fearful situation, their mind 'suspends' normal operations and it copes as well as it can in order to survive. This might involve reactions such as 'freezing to the spot' or instead the opposite 'flight away' from the danger. Usually the individual is aware of coping in an automated manner. Many Veterans will say later that their 'training took over' and they survived. 

The mind does not lay a memory for the frightening event or events in a normal way because it has delayed this until the danger passes. The rule is that once the danger has passed, the mind will try to file away the memory. This means it tries to file the facts of what happened, the emotions associated with the trauma and the sensations (eg: touch, taste, sound, vision, movement, and smell).

The problem is that when the mind presents the memory for filing it can be very distressing. The mind repeatedly and automatically presents the memory in the form of nightmares, flashbacks and intrusive unwanted memories. These "re-experiencing"phenomena are the mind's way of trying to file away the distressing memory. The re-experiencing can be very unpleasant and distressing because of the nature of the traumatic experience it exposes the sufferer to.

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Women Putting Feather into mans Waistcoat

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SERGEANT PETER GOGGINS

Despite following the orders to retreat of an NCO who shouted, "Run for your lives, the Huns are on top of you!", Sgt Peter Goggins was shot for deserting his post. 

The 22-year-old soldier, who had married six months before his death in January 1917, was commanding a unit of six soldiers in the front line, when a sergeant came running back from a reconnaissance mission yelling at them to withdraw. 
Sgt Goggins, of 19 Bn Durham Light Infantry, scrambled out of a dugout and fell back to a reserve trench 20 yards away - but it turned out to be a false alarm. 
Even though the sergeant confirmed that he had given the orders to retreat, Goggins was court martialled on Christmas Eve and executed a week later.
His 19-year-old wife Margaret disappeared when she heard the news and his mother had a nervous breakdown. 

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LIEUTENANT EDWIN DYETT

Sub Lt Edwin Dyett might have unwittingly been the victim of senior officers looking for a scapegoat from their own ranks after disquiet among soldiers that executions for cowardice and desertion were confined to the ranks. 
The son of a Merchant Navy captain, Edwin Dyett, from Cardiff, was a Royal Navy Reserve officer inexperienced in combat and even confessed his uncertainty of leadership. 
But after becoming lost for 24 hours and falling out with a senior officer Sub Lt Dyett was court martialled for deserting for two days between Nov 14 and 15, 1916 and a second count that he was guilty of cowardice. 
On Boxing Day 1916, with barely half an hour to prepare his defence, he formally faced his accusers. 
He was shot on Jan 4 1917 without being given any chance to appeal

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SERGEANT JOHN WALL

Sergeant John Thomas Wall (13216) 3rd Battalion Worcestershire Regiment - Sergeant J. T. Wall of Bockleton, near Tenbury, Worcestershire had enlisted in the Worcestershire Regiment in 1912 and served on the Western Front from the beginning of the First World War. 
When he arrived in France with the 3rd Battalion on the 12th August 1914, his rank was that of a Lance-Corporal. 
He had fought with his Battalion in every engagement and was promoted to Sergeant. 
In August 1917 the 3rd Battalion was in action near the Bellewarde Ridge, when Sergeant Wall went missing during the attack.
This was unlike him and it could have been that he was suffering from "battle fatigue" which affected his mental state. Unfortunately, this was not considered at his trial.
On the 6th September 1917, Sergeant Wall was executed by firing squad, for desertion, at Poperinghe at the age of 22.

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Lace Inspired Garment

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27/02/17

HENRY MOORE

I had not looked into Henry Moore Prior to seeing the exhibition in the Burberry Makers House, however, having been and seen what the Burberry designers where inspired by, I realised that Henry Moore had a direct connection to the war, specifically WW2 which interested me because it was another relation to my work. This also showed me where he gained his military inspiration from. 

Henry Moore was the most important British sculptor of the 20th century, and the most popular and internationally celebrated sculptor of the post-war period. Non-Western art was crucial in shaping his early work - he would say that his visits to the ethnographic collections of the British Museum were more important than his academic study. Although sculpture remained his principal medium, he was also a fine draughtsman, and his images of figures sheltering on the platforms of subway stations in London during the bombing raids of World War II remain much loved. 

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Woman Seated in the Underground (94)

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Anselm Kiefer, 'Palette' 1981 (98)

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John Lindegaard (105)

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Notes on Shell Shock WW1 Documentary, 3

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01/03/17 Notes on Coward Film

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02/03/17- Hacksaw Ridge (109)

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After the Battle (112)

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04/03/17

SHAME OF THE FAMILIES

In October 1916 Irish-born Private Harry Farr was executed for cowardice while serving with the West Yorkshire regiment. Ninety years later an emotional encounter between his daughter, Gertie Harris, and a British government minister started the process of overturning decades of Ministry of Defence policy.For the first time, former War Veterans' Minister Tom Watson has admitted his meeting with Harris in the summer of 2006 prompted him to force the MoD to change policy and grant her father and other shell-shocked troops a pardon. Harris revealed that her family was left penniless and homeless because her mother was not entitled to a military pension. Harris recalled how her father's execution was kept a family secret for decades because her mother was deeply marked by stigma and shame.

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Bravery & Valour in Ancient African Symbolism (117)

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Eagle is a Symbol of Courage and Strength to Native Americans (121)

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Marlene Dumas (124)

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07/03/17 Notes on Fashion Illustration

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I think that the shoulder piece is much more effective than the full body piece because I think that the body piece is too obtrusive and distracting however the more localised piece draws the eyes attention yo the details more effectively, which is what Im going to attempt to do 

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Dai Rees, La Poupee, SS 1997

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Shaun Leane, 'Coiled Corset' , AW 1999

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Rectangular Body armour worn in the field (138)

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British Troops armour- weight heavily focused on the chest and the shoulders (140)

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Armour used in WW1 for projection

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Shell Shock

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Poem Written by a Soldier

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British Uniform in WW1 (144)

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Notes on video in WOUNDED exhbiiton

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28/03/17 (148)

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Armour in 1917 British (151)

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Protection in Fashion

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30/03/17

I wanted to see how the idea of Protection has been used in fashion as inspiration for designs. I thought that this image was relevant because the perspex used against the black was reminiscent of the model that I had made earlier in the course of the project. I think that the shape of this is really important because it reinforces the way that the inspiration was the protection of the individual and I want to keep this concept ever present in my own project

Chest Piece inspired by body armour

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31/ 03/17 Barbara Bernat etchings (152)

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INTAGLIO PRINTING IN COPPER

Intaglio, is one of the four major classes of printmaking techniques, distinguished from the other three methods (relief printing, stenciling, and lithography) by the fact that the ink forming the design is printed only from recessed areas of the plate. The design is cut, scratched, or etched into the printing surface or plate, which can be copper, zinc, aluminum etc. 

In relation to my project, this could be a method of etching into the copper, however, I want to research further into how the process of etching copper would be, because I would assume that I would then need to ink the surface to show the image. 

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Process of Ferric Chloride Etchant

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I was researching on a website how to etch circuit boards, however simultaneously I came across a blog which described how to etch copper at home for more cosmetic practises. Instead of the resist such as acitone etc the writer was using inks, which meant that the designs on the copper where much more intricate and detailed, because the inks can be used as the resist itself. She used a stamp, and placed it in the Ferric Chloride, pulling it out after a while, and there it was, beautifully etched into the copper, with the bits that had been inked untouched, and the background engraved. I think that this technique would be manageable for me at home, and therefore as a result I am going to research more into how to use this technique at home for sheet copper using ink. 

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Risk assessment for Ferric Chloride

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Ferric Acid is Corrosive

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10/04/17 riveted armour (52)

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Kalou Studio – Pascal Latil Photography (159)

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Manish Arora for Paco Rabanne Spring 2012

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23/04/17

Nikita Golubev

Nikita Golubev is a moscow based artist who drew animals on the backs of cars and vehicles which were filthy dirty with mud. The reductive process involves creating “clean” spots by wiping or scraping his images onto the gritty surface of each car. He called it the 'Dirty Art' and took photos of it.

I really liked this artists work as it reminded me of my own, especially the process he used as he effectively etched into mud which I thought was really effective. I also think that this shows how effective animals can be at creating mood and atmosphere in a piece because of the connotations that we have with specific animals, for example the crocodile looks far more dangerous and aggressive than the owl, who looks wise and intriguing. I hope my piece has the same effect. 

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